MemberSeptember 22, 2021 at 7:52 pm
Many Early Bronze Age III cities including Heshbon, Arad, Jericho, Hazor, and Ai were completely and permanently destroyed by nomadic invaders of Canaan, but this is dated to the twenty-second century, seven centuries before the traditional date of the Conquest. Archaeologists don’t know who the invaders were. “Every town in Palestine that has so far been investigated shows the same break. The newcomers were nomads, not interested in town life, and they so completely drove out or absorbed the old population, perhaps already weakened and decadent, that all traces of the Early Bronze Age civilisation disappeared.” (Kenyon 1954, 134)
We see a recurring pattern of destructions by fire mentioned in the Bible found in the same cities five to seven centuries earlier:
The Bible records that Jericho, Ai, and Hazor were destroyed by fire during the conquest. (Joshua 6:24, 8:19, 11:11) Jericho and Ai were both found to have been burned in the Late Bronze III, eight centuries before the conventional date for the Conquest. Hazor may have been destroyed by fire twice, as Jeremiah prophesied its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar. (Jeremiah 49:28-33)
The Bible says that Shechem had a temple to Baal Berith with a tower that was destroyed by fire in the era of the Judges. (Judges 9) When Shechem was excavated in 1926, a large temple which had been destroyed by fire was found, but it was dated to the Middle Bronze Age IIC, and the destruction by fire was dated to 1650 BC, four and a half centuries before the time of Gideon’s son Abimelech. (Montgomery 2019, Ch. 3; Courville, Vol II, p.172ff)
The Bible records that the Pharaoh of Egypt conquered Gezer, burned it with fire, rebuilt it, and gave it to his daughter as her dowry to marry Solomon, (1 Kings 9:16) whom archaeologists date to the Iron Age. Archaeologists found that Gezer was destroyed by fire and rebuilt at the beginning of the Late Bronze Age around the time of Thutmose III, five centuries before Solomon.
Suggested conclusion – the chronology of the stratigraphy is off by centuries, because Flinders Petrie accepted Manetho’s linear sequence of 31 dynasties as the literal order, which it was never intended to be.
The dynasties in Memphis were parallel with the Dynasties in Thebes. The First and Second Intermediate Periods were the SAME PERIOD, because Dynasty 6 and Dynasty 12 were ruling in parallel with Dynasty 6 the vassal of Dynasty 12.
Joshua’s conquest ended the Early Bronze Age III cities in Palestine. Solomon was Middle Bronze III / Late Bronze I. The Iron Age I began around the time of the Fall of Samaria. Iron II began with the fall of Babylon.