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  • Thomas Donlon

    June 6, 2021 at 3:04 am

    Who does [David Rohl] think the Hyksos are then?

    Deborah, I’ll attempt an answer to this part of your question since it only involves some simple typing of what David has written in his book Exodus: Myth or History. Page 158.

           These early Hyksos rulers were Canaanites – several bearing Semitic names such as Ya Ammu, Yakubim, Kareh, Ammu, Sheshi and Yakub Har. They appear to have originated from southern Palestine. The Greater Hyksos kings who succeeded them, on the other hand, may have originiated from much further afield as they had strong contacts with the Indo-European lands to the north (especially with the island of Cyprus). Manetho describes them as "foreign kings from Phoenicia'. Excavations at Avaris record the appearance of imported Cypriote decorated pottery during the Greater Hyksos 17the Dynasty (strata D?2 and D/1), whereas southern Canaanite pottery predominated in the earlier Strata F to E/1, indicating the restricted southern contacts of the Lesser Hyksos kings.
          At this point it should be noted the Greek term 'Hyksos' refers only to the rulers of Mentho's invading 'people of obscure race'. The word is actually tow Egyptian words - Hyk (Egyptian heka) meaning 'ruler' and -sos which is usually equated with Egyptian khasut meaning 'hill country', giving us 'Ruler of the Hill Country' or more usually in the textbooks 'Ruler of Foreign Lands'. However, I actually prefer an alternative etymology which Menetho himself offers (as quoted by Josephus). I see the second element -sos as the Greek form of the Egyptian wprd shosu which describes the nomadic shepherds of the Negeb desert of southern Palestine and Wilderness of Shur in northern Sinai. These Bedouin-type nomads, in my view, were the 'people of obscure race' who, being on the very border of Egypt, seized their moment to invade the delta when it was ripe for plunder, following the catastrophe of Exodus. The Hyksos themselves were therefore the 'Rulers of the Shepherds' (Egyptian Hekau Shosu) or, to put it another way, the 'Shepherd Kings'.   

    After several more paragraphs about specifics about the details of the Kings and who reigned when, David Rohl went on writing “These warrior graves were gruesome affairs…” and he went on quoting Manetho about the Hyksos and their “cruel hostility, massacring…”