MemberMay 21, 2021 at 1:59 am
Hi Deb. Maybe you will find this interesting. This academic paper is a 26 minute read. It can be found online and freely downloaded.
“The 3.7kaBP Middle Ghor Event: Catastrophic Termination of a Bronze Age Civilization”
But here is just one of the lines of evidence that suggest a quick flash type heating rather than slow burning bitumen from the paper. But the blast affects are also compelling but you can read about that yourself from the paper after you find it.
Thermal Evidence: Mixed within the thousands of pottery sherds that we have recovered at Tall el-Hammam is a very small and unique collection of partially melted (“vitrified”) sherds (see Figure 3), all of which have been recovered from sealed MB2 contexts on both the Upper and Lower Talls. Each of these sherds has been exposed to an extremely high-temperature, short-duration thermal profile. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to image the detail of selected sherds, we have identified specific melted zircon crystals that have melting temperatures of 2,200°C which is higher than the melting temperature of the clay (about 1,700°C) that formed the glass. The most recent SEM examination (using a more powerful device than before) identified vesicles within the melted zircon crystal that indicate boiling of the melted material at 4,000°C.
The materials scientists on our analysis team concluded that the sherd shown in Figure 4 (which is the cut edge of #1 shown in Figure 3) was exposed to an extremely high temperature profile that lasted for a very short duration. This conclusion is based upon the following: 1.The average thickness of the sherd is 5 mm. 2.Only the top 1 mm of the clay (which contains the melted zircons) melted to glass. 3.The next 2 mm of clay are darkened by the thermal exposure. 4.The bottom 2 mm of clay are the natural color. 5.Most important: The whole sherd did not melt into a glob of glass! It is not possible at this time to quantify the actual temperature to which the sherd was exposed, but it had to be hot enough to penetrate the sherd’s surface and boil the zircons, yet of a short enough duration to avoid a complete meltdown. Clearly, this is not a temperature/exposure profile that was within the capability of MBA people!
The whole article is interesting though with other lines of evidence pointing toward an aerial cosmic airburst.
Also the book of Lamentations suggests that the destruction of Sodom took a moment, rather than being a slow roast from burning bitumen. Not doubt the smoldering continued for a while, but the destruction was instant.
The punishment of my people is greater than that of Sodom, which was overthrown in a moment without a hand turned to help her. (Lam. 4:6 NIV)